Types of cancer can be classified depending on the location of the tumor, its size, causes, etc. The development of the tumor process in the body can be influenced by various factors, from malnutrition to genetic inheritance. All types of cancer require a specific treatment regimen, which allows you to maintain a normal course of life.
Types of cancer are characterized by differences in the cellular structure of the tumor, the dynamics of development, as well as the level of survival during treatment.
Oncological diseases can occur in all systems and organs of the body. The classification of types of oncological diseases occurs depending on the location of the tumor and many other factors. Thus, the process of development of a malignant tumor can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, upper respiratory tract and chest, skin, skeleton and soft tissues, circulatory and lymphatic system, brain and spinal cord. Cancer is an active progressive pathological proliferation of atypical cells replacing normal tissues.
Many types of cancer are easily diagnosed at early stages, which makes it possible to defeat cancer effectively and efficiently. In the latent period, when the symptoms and signs of cancer have not yet appeared in the patient, but the proliferation of cancer cells is already taking place, the form and type of cancer is revealed.
All types of cancer manifest symptoms depending on the location of the tumor and its stage. Pain syndromes manifest themselves at the site of cancer growth, as well as the general condition of the body worsens, the temperature rises slightly, and appetite decreases. An important condition for effective treatment is its detection in the early stages, when cancer cells have not yet entered the blood and lymph.
Stages of cancer development
Depending on the progression of the disease, oncology is divided into stages. At the first stage, the tumor reaches a small size and is located within the organ, the second stage differs from the first by an increase in the size of the tumor, the third stage is the germination of cancer cells into the nearest tissues and lymph, the fourth stage is an active progressive development of the tumor and metastasis to distant organs.
All types of cancer are classified according to a single system for measuring the pathological process in the body, which helps to compare the values of cancer centers around the world. The letter and digital designation of the stages of cancer is disclosed by the international system of clinical classification of cancer, and has a designation regardless of the type of cancer. To determine the values, there are three criteria – the size of the cancerous tumor, metastasis to the lymph and the presence of metastases in other organs.
What is metastasis?
Metastasis is the transfer of tumor cells in the body that create new foci in other organs. Types of cancer do not affect the possibility of multiple tumors. Metastases develop in three main stages:
- invasion – transfer of pathogenic cells into blood vessels;
- the flow of these cells by the flow of blood, lymph and cavity fluids,
- implantation is the survival of cancer cells and the formation of a secondary tumor focus.
Diagnosis of the disease by computed tomography helps to detect the type of cancer and the formation of metastases in the body and choose an effective treatment to improve the picture of the disease.
Types of cancers
Types of cancer are determined depending on many factors. Oncological disease is classified according to several criteria:
- at the location of the tumor;
- by the type of tissue in which cancer cells develop,
- by the structure of cancer cells,
- according to the principle of division,
- according to the complexity of development.
Types of cancer are divided according to the location of the tumor. That is, the organ or system where it develops.
Also, types of oncological diseases are divided by tissue type. Cancer cells actively multiply in muscle, epithelial, bone, vascular, nervous and connective tissue. The development of malignant formation in several types of tissues is called complex.
According to the structure of tumor cells , there are:
- carcinoma – cancer in the epithelium,
- leukemia is the development of a cancerous process in the hematopoietic system,
- melanoma – skin cancer,
- sarcoma is a cancer in the connective tissue,
- lymphoma – cancer in the lymphatic system,
- glioma – brain cancer, etc.
According to the principle of division of cancer cells, types of clinical, morphological and histological cancers are divided.
Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the types of cancer that occur most often. They occur in the thyroid, pancreas and mammary glands, on the cervix and lungs.
All types of cancer occur in the body under the influence of certain factors. The development of cancer mainly depends on lifestyle. Improper nutrition with low-quality products with a high content of carcinogens cause the development of malignant tumors. Excessive alcohol consumption and smoking are also a factor in the occurrence of cancer, as well as work in harmful industries and enterprises where the body accumulates toxic substances.
Heredity also affects the presence of cancer cells in the body. Pathological processes in cells can occur after their mutation in the prenatal period and during the development of the organism. So some types of cancer develop in newborn children along with the growth of body tissues.
Poor ecology and high radiation levels are also causes of cancer.
Diagnosis of oncological diseases
Early diagnosis of the disease allows you to choose an effective treatment and increase the chances of recovery and maintaining the normal course of life of the patient. A successful treatment method is possible only after the detection of a cancerous tumor and the determination of the type of cancer.
Diagnosis of treatment begins with a consultation with a specialist and an assessment of the symptoms of the disease, after which a number of studies are prescribed. Types of cancer are determined after ultrasound examination and taking a biopsy. A full-fledged approach to the diagnosis of the disease, taking into account age, concomitant ailments and risk factors, helps to eliminate false symptoms.
Methods of treatment of oncological diseases
Depending on the type of cancer, treatment methods are selected. The most effective is a combined or integrated approach to getting rid of the disease.
The main and radical method of treatment is surgical intervention. Some types of cancer allow you to remove the tumor inside the organ or together with it. But surgery is not always the way out and then other methods of treatment are selected.
Depending on the type of cancer, additional treatment is prescribed, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
A successful outcome of treatment can be achieved if the patient is set up for treatment and compliance with medical recommendations, preventive measures and observation by an oncologist. Early diagnosis of cancer allows you to avoid aggravation of the condition, restore the normal course of life, as well as avoid the possibility of relapse.
Prevention of oncological diseases
Cancer prevention is, first of all, maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Abstaining from alcohol, smoking, harmful and fatty foods, an active lifestyle and a calm nervous state.
Cancers should be monitored throughout life using screening studies. Due to the latent course of cancer, symptoms may appear already in the advanced stage, when treatment may be ineffective. Therefore, preventive examinations and an attentive approach to dangerous symptoms will help to maintain health for many years, and if the disease does occur, especially if all risk factors are taken into account, this will allow you to choose the right treatment method for any type of cancer.
The main task of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “NMIC of Radiology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation is to fulfill the state task of providing medical assistance to citizens of the Russian Federation in the treatment of oncological diseases. At the Federal State University “NMIC of Radiology” of the Ministry of Health of Russia and its branches: the P.A. Herzen Moscow Research Oncological Institute (P.A. Herzen Institute of Oncology), the A.F. Tsyba Medical Radiological Research Center (A.F. Tsyba MRSC), the N.A. Lopatkin Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology (Research Institute of Urology and Interventional Radiology named after N.A. Lopatkina) employs 520 highly qualified doctors – doctors and candidates of medical sciences, 1250 – residents of the highest and first category. All of them, as well as researchers, nurses, orderlies and many other workers serve tens of thousands of patients. Every year, more than eight thousand patients receive high-tech medical care under state guarantees at the FSBI “NMIC of Radiology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. More than 14 thousand patients undergo surgical operations, 12 thousand undergo chemotherapy.